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College of Business Administration


Robert A. Mittelstaedt

Recent Paper Presentations (1997 - present)

Robert E. Stassen and Robert A. Mittelstaedt (2001), "Do Franchise Systems Spend Too Much On Advertising? A New Look." Presented at the 15th Annual Conference of the Society of Franchising, Las Vegas, February.

Michael (1999), showing that franchised restaurant and hotel systems exhibit a significantly lower amount of advertising as a percent of sales than corporate chains, raises the point that franchised systems may not advertise enough. This paper uses longitudinal data from franchised restaurant chains' advertising expenditures from 1989 through 1998. First the paper examines the proportions of expenditures recorded in Ad $ Summary, showing that the amounts expressed as percentage of sales, are quite variable both within and across franchise systems, in contrast to how the advertising budgets are determined. Second, an analysis shows a significant amount of variance in these expenditures can be attributed to the size, ownership, and contractual nature of the franchise system. Last, a within-system analysis of advertising expenditures and store performance indicates the majority of franchises systems are at a stage with few returns to advertising. While the proportion of franchisee ownership in franchised systems is associated with lower advertising expenditures, the results show that advertising within franchised chains are at a level of competitive parity with corporate restaurant chains and finds no evidence to support gains from increasing expenditures.

Robert A. Mittelstaedt and Robert E. Stassen (2000), "Alderson, Aspinwall, Fisk, and Slater Encounter the Internet: A Macromarketing View of E-Commerce," presented at the 25th Annual Macromarketing Conference, Lovran, Croatia, June.

A reflection on the evolution of Macromarketing thought through the writings of four early contributors examines their works for some enduring principles that apply to e-commerce. Using only items published before 1968 as source material, explanations of major current trends in e-commerce are found; this leads to some speculations about the future of e-commerce, especially e-tailing.

Marko Grünhagen and Robert A. Mittelstaedt (2000), "Putting Entrepreneurship Back into the Franchise Realm: A Macromarketing Issue," presented at the 25th Annual Macromarketing Conference, Lovran, Croatia, June.

The paper examines the recent emergence of multi-unit franchising as a macro phenomenon from the franchisee perspective. It provides a conceptual comparison of two prevalent types of multi-unit franchising in the U. S., area development and sequential multi-unit franchising. The suggestions provided in this paper focus on the philosophical distinction of these two categories of aspiring franchise owners. It is argued that sequential multi-unit operators have more of an entrepreneurial motivation than area developers, who are better viewed as "investors." It is suggested that, from a macromarketing perspective, a clear need exists for marketing researchers to understand the emergence of such an important and pervasive marketing institution.

Ahmet Ekici, Suraj Commuri, and Robert Mittelstaedt (1999), "Toward a Holistic Model of Marketing Channel Development," Presented at the 24th Annual Macromarketing Conference, Nebraska City, August.

It is now a universally acknowledged fact that channel development can be traced back to several antecedents that lie in the economic, social, legislative, and other domains of the country or region concerned. We argue that though such research has been extensive and multidimensional, there appears scope for a macro perspective that would reveal several other antecedents that iterate to fuel the evolution of marketing channels. This paper reviews the literature that has examined the antecedents of channel development and identifies the gaps in the context of our proposed holistic model of marketing channel development.

John Mittelstaedt, Thomas Klein, and Robert Mittelstaedt (1998), "Economies in Transition: Evidence of Religious Effects on Models of Economic Development." Presented at the 23rd Annual Macromarketing Conference, University of Rhode Island, August.

The authors develop a framework for understanding the effects of religion on economic development, with special attention given to the economies in transition and emerging economies. A commonly accepted model of economic development is identified and the incorporation of religious "events" into this model is evaluated. The consequences of religious influence are projected from that analysis.

Madhavan Parthasarathy, Terri Rittenburg, and Robert Mittelstaedt (1998), "The Role of Diffusion of Innovations in Economic Development: A Theoretical Analysis." Presented at the 23rd Annual Macromarketing Conference, University of Rhode Island, August.

The authors explore patterns of diffusion of innovations among societies in different stages of economic development. It is contended that societies in different stages will depict different diffusion patterns with respect to the adoption of products and technologies and that these diffusion patterns will vary in terms of the shape of the diffusion curve and "height" (ultimate penetration." Typical patterns of diffusion are identified for societies in the developed, developing, and less developed stages. Implications for marketing practices are discussed.

Cara Okleshen and Robert Mittelstaedt (1998), "Revisiting the Replicabililty of Marketing Research: Reported Content and Author Cooperation Eighteen Years Later." Presented at the Winter Educators' Meeting of the American Marketing Association, Austin, February.

This study replicates Madden, Franz, and Mittelstaedts' (1979) research on reported content and author cooperation. Results indicate that the amount of reported content has increased for constructive replication, but not for operational replication, and author attitudes toward replication and willingness to cooperate has changed little over the past eighteen years.

Robert Mittelstaedt and John Mittelstaedt (1997), "Criteria for a Macromarketing Theory of Competition." Presented at the 22rd Annual Macromarketing Conference, Bergen, Norway, June.

As a field of study, Macromarketing needs a theory of competition that focuses on process. This theory should explain and predict outcomes of competition within a market at a given time, as well as the change that is bound to occur. Whatever its particulars, the theory should incorporate known regularities about the factors that affect market share. These regularities are detailed in the paper.
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