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College of Business Administration


Robert A. Mittelstaedt

Recent Journal Articles

Marko Grünhagen and Robert A. Mittelstaedt (2001), "Franchising from the Franchisee Perspective: A Review of the Multi-Unit Franchising Paradox," International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 2 (June), 73-80.

The focus of this article is on the emergence and development of multi-unit franchising in the United States from the franchisee perspective. After an historical summary of the development from a marketing viewpoint, a typology of different franchisee types is provided and the "multi-unit franchising paradox" is presented. The article offers a discussion of the reasons why individuals might be enticed to become multi-unit franchisees. An emphasis is put on entrepreneurship as a possible motive for sequential owners for their involvement as multi-unit franchisees. The article concludes with an encouragement for future research to investigate the issues.

Marko Grünhagen and Robert A. Mittelstaedt (2001), "The Impact of Store Hours and Redistributive Income Effects on the Retail Industry: Some Projections for Germany," The International Journal of Retail, Distribution, and Consumer Research, 11 (January), 49-62.

The impact of the 1996 store hour expansion in the Federal Republic of Germany on the structure of the retail industry is examined in this paper. After a discussion of the history of laws limiting store hours, the arguments of the proponents and opponents of the German time expansion are presented. This leads to an analysis of the relevant conceptual and empirical literature on the relationship between store hours and retail structure. Possible redistirbutive effects are described and predictions are made for the effects on German retailing, with suggestions for future research.

Cara Okleshen, Stacey Menzel Baker, and Robert A. Mittelstaedt, (2000), "Santa Claus Does More than Deliver Toys: Advertising's Commercialization of Collective Memory," Consumption, Markets, and Culture, 4 (3), 207-240.

This paper explores the role that advertising plays in shaping collective memories. One example of how this multiphase process (the past interacting with the present and the present interacting with the past) is demonstrated by examining the images of advertising that use Santa Claus. Specifically, Coca-Cola's claim to the modern day image is juxtaposed with other sources of the image to discuss the viability of attributing the image to just one source. The paper concludes by discussing how marketing processes, specifically advertising, contribute to the cultural meaning and collective remembrance of images.

Marko Grünhagen and Robert A. Mittelstaedt (2000), "Are Some Franchisees More Entrepreneurial than Others? A Conceptual Perspective on Multi-Unit Franchisees," Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 12 (3), 15-28.

This article examines the recent emergence of multi-unit franchising from the franchisee perspective. It provides a conceptual comparison of two prevalent domestic types of multi-unit franchising: area development and sequential multi-unit franchising. The suggestions provided in this paper focus on the philosophical distinction of these two categories of aspiring franchise owners, suggesting that a prospective franchisee's decision for a particular type of franchise can be likened to a consumer's purchase decision. It is argued that sequential multi-unit operators have more of an entrepreneurial motivation than area developers, who are more like "investors," and that this underlying difference in philosophy might influence the decision process. It is suggested that a clear need exists for marketing researchers to understand the emergence of such important and pervasive marketing institutions as franchise businesses.

Robert E. Stassen, John D. Mittelstaedt, and Robert A. Mittelstaedt (1999), "Assortment Overlap: Its Effect on Shopping Patterns in a Retail Market when the Distribution of Prices and Goods are Known," Journal of Retailing, 75 (Fall), 371-386.

The majority of households divide their grocery shopping between 2 or more stores each week. This paper examines the merchandising factors affecting the sharing of customers between stores through a pairwise analysis of their assortment overlap, price differentiation, and interstore distance. Results from a study of a market of 27 stores show that assortment overlap and interstore differences are determinants of shared patronage. Results also support hypothesized relationships concerning the differentiation of assortments and price in a spatial market.

John D. Mittelstaedt and Robert A. Mittelstaedt (1997), "The Protection of Intellectual Property: Issues of Origination and Ownership," Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 16 (Spring), 14-25.

Western intellectual property protection is based on the twin premises and individual people can originate and own ideas. Because these premises are not universally accepted, differences in laws and enforcement exist in the global market. The authors present a framework for describing these differences and discuss it in terms of relations among developed nations, between developed and developing nations and between all nations and indigenous people. They conclude with implications for marketers in several industrial sectors.

Madhavan Parthasarathy, Sunkyu Jun, and Robert A. Mittelstaedt (1997), "Multiple Diffusion and Multicultural Aggregate Social Systems," International Marketing Review, 14 (#4), 233-245,

The purpose of the paper is to explore the potential effects of the presence of subcultures on the diffusion of an innovation within the total, aggregated society. It is argued that these subcultural groups are separate social systems with their own unique diffusion patterns and, therefore, unique but predictable patterns of acceptance of an innovation. After discussion the nature of social systems, factors that result in different diffusion patterns are detailed and their effects on the rate of acceptance are discussed. The implications of these differences for marketing theorists and practitioners are discussed. Recent Paper Presentations (1997-present) (Each can be found in the respective proceedings. Does not include those published as journal articles.)
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